Enzymes are biocatalysts which when present in a chemical reaction, increases the rate of a reaction without affecting the property and nature of the end product. Almost all enzymes are proteins but not all proteins are enzymes. Enzymes are highly specific in their action therefore each enzyme catalyzes only one type of reaction. Enzymes activity can be influenced by a change in pH, temperature, the concentration of substrate present and can be described by Turnover Number.
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Individual Enzyme Solutions For Individual Requirements
Baking Enzymes are indispensable in bread baking. They convert the flour starch into sugars that can be used by the yeasts and break down gluten proteins and mucilage. The enzymes form enzyme-substrate complexes with their substrate, at which the substrate is converted or split. In bakery systems, enzymes act as:
This enables bakers to remove undesirable additives, and make clean label baked goods.
In the Dairy Industry, some enzymes are required for the production of cheeses, yogurt, and other dairy products, while others are used in a more specialized fashion to improve texture or flavor. Milk contains both indigenous and exogenous enzymes. Exogenous enzymes mainly consist of heat-stable enzymes produced by psychrotrophic bacteria: lipases, and proteinases. There are many indigenous enzymes that have been isolated from milk.
Enzymes are novel alternatives to chemical or mechanical methods for improving yield and quality in the beverage industry. Enzymes used in the extraction and clarification of fruit juices. In the beverage industry, enzymes and the reactions they catalyze are indispensable.
In beverages, as in other food products, enzymes may occur naturally or their presence may be due to intentional formulation. Enzymes perform many functions in beverages.
Meat Processing Enzymes such as proteases can be used to tenderize meat products and add flavor to meat products, etc.
Enzymes has been widely used in meat processing. The enzymes of meat products will cause an internal cross-linking reaction of proteins and produce special chemical groups, which will change the taste of meat products.
The internal structure of proteins, which changes the chemical properties of proteins in meat products, thereby altering their water solubility, hydration, and emulsification.
Pharmaceutically important enzymes are an important component of the pharmaceutical market. They are broadly defined as prodrugs that target a specific biological reversible or irreversible reaction to treat a particular disease. Enzymes which are used for pharmaceutical applications include cysteine proteinases, asparaginase, streptokinase, urokinase & glucocerebrosidase. Immobilized enzymes are also used in pharmaceutical industry.
Paper & Pulp Enzymes
In Paper and Pulp Industry, the most important application of enzymes is in the prebleaching of kraft pulp.Enzymes have also been used to increase pulp fibrillation and water retention and to reduce beating time in virgin pulps. With recycled fibers, enzymes have been used for deinking and to restore bonding and increase freeness. Enzymes have also been investigated for removal of bark, shives, pitch, and slime and for retting of flax fibers.
The Animal Feed Industry uses enzymes that degrade crude fiber, starch, proteins, and phytates, and being proteins, they are eventually digested or excreted by the animal, having no residual effect on products like meat or egg. Animal feed enzymes help break down indiscriminating factors (e.g., fiber, phytate) that are naturally occurring in various feed ingredients. Indiscriminating factors may result in decreased meat or egg production and inferior feed efficiency, and can cause digestive disturbances as well.
Enzymatic polymerization has been extensively developed over the past two decades. It is defined as “the in vitro polymerization of artificial substrate monomers catalyzed by an isolated enzyme via nonbiosynthetic (nonmetabolic) pathways”. These catalysts still play major roles in polymer synthesis. Enzymes are composed primarily of proteins, which are polymers of amino acids. Enzymes can bind prosthetic groups that participate in enzyme reactions. Prosthetic are not part of the enzyme polypeptide chain.
Detergent enzymes are biological enzymes that are used with detergents. They catalyze the reaction between stains and the water solution, thus aiding stain removal and improving efficiency. Laundry detergent enzymes are the largest application of industrial enzymes. Most biological laundry detergents contain lipase and protease enzymes, both of which are found in the body. Lipases break down fats and oils, while proteases work to break down protein chains.
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